Pentecost is the feast of the ’new normal,’ life in the Spirit poured
out on the apostles and on all creation. As we celebrated Pentecost this
year people were talking about a different ‘new normal’ – our life
after the Pandemic. When we rebuild our lives,
will we have a better sense of what is important? Or will we just rush
back to the same old life? What will ‘new normal’ mean for the Church?
What will our priorities be? How will we welcome those who have been
joining us online? How will we support those
who are sad about people and things that have been lost? What will we
need to do if we are to open our churches but keep people safe?
A week ago over 40
clergy and lay readers shared in an online CMD Conference about exactly
these questions, organised for us by Michael Paterson. Our discussions
began from his reflections
on the Four Hallmarks of Ministry in Luke 24 (Jesus and the Disciples
on the Road to Emmaus) in the context of the pandemic. I’d like to thank
all of you who attended (and those who tried to but couldn’t due to
broadband problems), to thank Michael for organising
it and for guiding our reflection, and to Carrie Applegath and Elaine
Garman for managing the event. The text and a video of Michael’s
presentation is available on the Diocesan website. https://standrews.anglican.org/clergy-development-resources/
The Scottish Government’s ‘Route Back’ outlines 4 Phases for opening up
public life. As we know, it is measured and cautious, and the timing of
each Phase will be announced when the Government decides the time is
right. Phase 2 does envisage the possibility
of churches being opened for individual prayer and for funerals, but
the requirements of physical distancing, provision of handwashing and
masks, deep cleaning, and support and training of volunteers, will make
this challenging and demanding for churches who
decide to offer this. And many of our active members, and some of our
active clergy and lay readers are ‘vulnerable’, and may be ‘shielding’
by staying at home for longer than others. Very shortly the Advisory
Group set up by the College of Bishops will send
out detailed practical Guidance on what Episcopal churches would be
able to do (and not do) once Phase 2 is announced by the Government. I
(assisted by the Dean) will be ready to talk to clergy and vestries who
decide they want to take any of these steps when
the time comes. We all want to see the opening of our churches, but we
also know that opening them safely will require care and patience.
Globally, the pandemic is still in its early days, as we know from the
present situation in Brazil and India from our
link bishops in Amazonia and Calcutta (letters sent to you last week,
and in the current Diocesan E-News.
Also in the E-News, with Trinity Sunday and a version of Rublev’s icon
in mind, I have written about ‘Black Lives Matte’r and the reality of
racism. It is in all of our minds, in wake of the murder of George Floyd
in Minneapolis last week, as are the protests
that have sprung up in the USA and in other countries (the article
is attached to this email). The fact is that Racism is as real in
Scotland as anywhere. Many people have said that the death of George
Floyd at the hands of police is a reminder of the equally
unacceptable death of Sheku Bayoh in Kirkcaldy in 2015. Mr Bayoh also
died from asphyxiation in the process of being detained. Accusations and
counter-accusations have circulated ever since, but it is only now, 5
years later, that a public enquiry has been
established. Mr Bayoh’s sister said, “If he was a white man that is not
the way his life would have ended. … We are black people but we are not
bad people. So why do our children have to feel afraid walking in the
Like you I am horrified by Racism, and by how hard it still is for Black
and Asian people to be treated justly even here in Scotland. But as
a White male person I also know that I have a lot to learn about my own
attitudes formed by growing up in a world that
privileges people like me. I chose to write about Racism this month
because even in the situation of pandemic and lockdown, the Church
has to engage with the other deep evils that continue to oppress and
destroy people’s lives, and to witness to the love of
God that calls us to overcome them. As clergy and lay readers we need
to take opportunities to think and pray together about enabling our
churches to engage. I hope that future CMD discussions and study
gatherings will help us to do this, even while we are
struggling with Covid.
Racism, the abuse of women and children, homophobia, the exclusion of
disabled people, the neglect of older people – these evils are in
reality the same evil, the same sin: our refusal to
respect and love every human being, regardless of difference,
as our equals in humanity, and as the image of God. After Pentecost we
have to pray that the Spirit will lead us and all humankind into all the
truth, that we may proclaim the word and works of God.
Also attached to this are some further resources for you:
– the Diocesan Cycle of Prayer for 2020-21, revised with corrections received after the draft was sent out recently.
– 2 more resources from St Luke’s Trust on the welllbeing of those in ministry.
– the latest edition of the SEI Newsletter.
– information about bursaries offered by Ecclesisatiacal Insurance for clergy study.
As always, please accept my great admiration and thanks for the love and
prayer you are bringing to help our congregations to continue in prayer
and service. Thank you for all your faithful work which is making this
With my greetings and blessings for Trinity Sunday,
The Rt Rev Ian Paton & the Rev Canon Dr Carrie Applegarth will celebrate a Eucharist from their home in Perth.
A service of devotion
Christ bids us break the bread
and share the cup he gave,
in token of the blood he shed
for those he died to save.
It was for us he came,
to bear, by human birth,
a crown of thorn, a cross of shame,
for every child of earth.
The Saviour crucified
in glory rose again:
we here remember him who died,
ascended now to reign.
Our hearts his word obey,
in thankfulness and love:
we feed on Christ by faith today
and feast with him above.
O Christ, once lifted up
that we might be forgiven,
we take the bread and drink the cup
and share the life of heaven.
Your love is poured out in death for our sakes
Hold us in your embrace as we wait for Easter’s dawn
Comfort us with the promise
That no power on earth not even death himself
Can separate us from your love;
And strengthen us to wait until you are revealed to us
In all your risen glory
The Last Supper: extracts from the Gospel accounts.
time was near for the Festival of Unleavened Bread, which is called the
Passover. The chief priests and the teachers of the Law were afraid of
the people, and so they
were trying to find a way putting Jesus to death secretly
Satan entered Judas, called Iscariot who was one of the twelve
disciples. So Judas went off and spoke with the chief priests and the
officers of the temple guard about
how he could betray Jesus to them. They were pleased and offered him
money. Judas agreed to it and started looking for a good chance to hand
Jesus over to them without the people knowing about it
day came during the Festival of Unleavened Bread when the lambs for the
Passover meal were to be killed. Jesus sent off Peter and John with
‘Go and get the Passover meal ready for us to eat’
‘Where do you want us to get it ready?’ they asked him
answered ‘As you go into the city, a man carrying a jar of water will
meet you. Follow him into the house that he enters, and say to the owner
of the house: The teacher
says to you, Where is the room where my disciples and I will eat the
Passover meal? He will show you a large furnished room upstairs, where
you will get everything ready’
While they were eating, Jesus took a piece of bread, gave a prayer of thanks, broke it, and gave it to his disciples
‘Take and eat it’ he said ‘this is my body’
Then he took a cup gave thanks to God and gave it to them.
it all of you’ he said ‘this is my blood, which seals God’s covenant,
my blood poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins. I tell you I
will never again drink
this wine until the day I drink the new wine with you in my Father’s
and his disciples were at supper. He rose from the table, took off his
outer garment, and tied a towel round his waist. Then he poured some
water into a basin and began
to wash his disciple’s feet and dry them with the towel around his
waist. He came to Simon Peter who said to him, ‘Are you going to wash my
feet Lord? Jesus answered him
‘You do not understand what I am doing, but you will understand later’
‘Where are you going, Lord?’ Simon Peter asked him
‘You cannot follow me now where I am going’ answered Jesus; ‘but later you will follow me.’
‘Lord why can’t I follow you now?’ asked Peter. ‘I am ready to die for you!’ Jesus answered
you really ready to die for me? ‘I am telling you the truth: before the
cock crows you will say three times that you do not know me’
Father eternal, giver of light and grace,
we have sinned against you and against our neighbour,
in what we have thought,
in what we have said and done,
through ignorance, through weakness,
and through our own deliberate fault.
We have wounded your love,
and marred your image in us.
We are sorry and ashamed,
and repent of all our sins.
For the sake of your Son Jesus Christ, who died for us,
forgive us all that is past;
and lead us out from darkness
to walk as children of light
who forgives all who truly repent,
have mercy upon us
pardon and deliver us from all your sins
confirm and strengthen us in all goodness
and keep us in the same
An act of Communion
union, O Lord with the faithful, I desire to offer you praise and
thanksgiving. I present to you my soul and body with the earnest wish
that I may always be united to You. And since I cannot now receive you
sacramentally, I beseech You to come into my heart. Amen.
The Lord’s Prayer
who art in heaven,
hallowed be thy name;
thy kingdom come;
thy will be done;
on earth as it is in heaven.
Give us this day our daily bread;
and forgive us our trespasses,
as we forgive those
who trespass against us.
And lead us not into temptation,
but deliver us from evil.
For thine is the kingdom,
the power and the glory,
for ever and ever.
When I survey the wondrous cross
on which the Prince of glory died,
my richest gain I count but loss,
and pour contempt on all my pride.
Forbid it, Lord, that I should boast
save in the cross of Christ my God;
all the vain things that charm me most,
I sacrifice them to his blood.
See from his head, his hands, his feet,
sorrow and love flow mingled down;
did e’er such love and sorrow meet,
or thorns compose so rich a crown!
Were the whole realm of nature mine,
that were a present far too small;
love so amazing, so divine,
demands my soul, my life, my all.
The Gospel narratives continue
When the disciples had sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives. Jesus prayed to the Father
‘If it is possible, take this cup of suffering from me’
He said to his disciples,
is that you were not able to keep watch with me for one hour? The hour
has come for the Son of Man to be handed over to the power of sinful
men. Come let us go’
the way they met a man named Simon who was coming into the city from the
country, and the soldiers forced him to carry Jesus’ cross. They took
Jesus to a place called Golgotha
which means ‘The Place of the Skull’
The closing words
Shadows gather deep and cold
Lamplight flickers, fades and fails
Lord you know what daybreak holds –
Thorns and beatings, cross and nails.
You will be denied, betrayed
When the rooster wakes the sun
Yet you kneel alone and pray
‘Not my will, but thine be done’
In the watches of the night,
In the hour when darkness reigns,
In the grief that has no light,
In the time of fear and pain,
then we hold fast to our way,
In the victr’y you have won
Jesus teach us how to pray
‘Not my will, but thine be done’
Abide with me; fast falls the eventide;
the darkness deepens; Lord, with me abide!
when other helpers fail, and comforts flee,
help of the helpless, O abide with me.
Swift to its close ebbs out life’s little day;
earth’s joys grow dim, its glories pass away;
change and decay in all around I see;
O thou who changest not, abide with me.
I need thy presence every passing hour;
what but thy grace can foil the tempter’s power?
who like thyself my guide and stay can be?
through cloud and sunshine, O abide with me.
I fear no foe with thee at hand to bless;
ills have no weight, and tears no bitterness.
Where is death’s sting?
Where, grave, thy victory?
I triumph still, if thou abide with me.
Hold thou thy cross before my closing eyes;
shine through the gloom, and point me to the skies:
Heaven’s morning breaks, and earth’s vain shadows flee;
in life, in death, O Lord, abide with me!
you to those who have continued to be in contact by phone and email
during the week. Please continue to do so, even if just for a chat. I am
self-isolated and remain of course anxious to help anyone during these
difficult days. My thought and prayer for you all.
Scottish Episcopal Church will continue this Sunday to broadcast video
coverage of its Eucharistic service via its website, social media
YouTube channel. The web page for the broadcast is located at www.scotland.anglican.org/broadcast-sunday-worship
The website will also contain a downloadable video and audio format of the service.
seems unthinkable that Holy Week this year will need to be observed in
solitude. Even in the darkest days of the last Great War churches
remained open. We will though do our best to make the coming
week as meaningful as possible with a Linkage Service being available
via the Bulletin both for Maundy Thursday and Good Friday.
participation in the whole sequence of services, the Christian shares
in Christ’s own journey, from the triumphal entry into Jerusalem today
to the empty tomb on Easter morning.
week starts today with the procession with palms. In normal
circumstances, Palm Crosses would be distributed in church services
today. They will be as soon as circumstances allow.
For the purposes of today’s service, would you please imagine a palm cross in your hand?
Better still, you may have retained a cross from a previous occasion.
The Palm Sunday Service
Introduction and Collect
Hosanna to the Son of David, the King of Israel.
Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord.
Hosanna in the highest.
Lent we have been preparing by works of love
and self-sacrifice for the celebration of our Lord’s death and
resurrection. Today we come together to begin this solemn celebration in
union with the Church throughout the world. Christ enters his own city
to complete his work as our Saviour, to suffer, to
die, and to rise again. Let us go with him in faith and love, so that,
united with him in his sufferings, we may share his risen life.
God our Saviour,
whose Son Jesus Christ entered Jerusalem as Messiah to suffer
and to die;
let these palms be for us signs of his victory
and grant that we who bear them in his name
may ever hail him as our King,
and follow him in the way that leads to eternal life;
who is alive and reigns with you,
in the unity of the Holy Spirit,
one God, now and for ever.
Jesus and his disciples had come near Jerusalem and had reached
Bethphage, at the Mount of Olives, Jesus sent two disciples, saying to
them, ‘Go into the village ahead of you, and immediately
you will find a donkey tied, and a colt with her; untie them and bring
them to me. If anyone says anything to you, just say this, “The Lord
needs them.” And he will send them immediately.’ This took place to
fulfil what had been spoken through the prophet,
‘Tell the daughter of Zion,
Look, your king is coming to you,
humble, and mounted on a donkey,
and on a colt, the foal of a donkey.’
disciples went and did as Jesus had directed them; they brought the
donkey and the colt, and put their cloaks on them, and he sat on them. A
very large crowd spread their cloaks on the road, and
others cut branches from the trees and spread them on the road. The
crowds that went ahead of him and that followed were shouting,
‘Hosanna to the Son of David!
Blessed is the one who comes in the name of the Lord!
Hosanna in the highest heaven!’
When he entered Jerusalem, the whole city was in turmoil, asking,
‘Who is this?’ The crowds were saying, ‘This is the prophet Jesus from
Nazareth in Galilee.’
This is the Gospel of the Lord.
The Nicene Creed.
I believe in one God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, And of all things visible and invisible:
And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God; Begotten of
His Father before all worlds, God of God, Light of Light, Very God of
very God; Begotten, not made; Being of one substance with the Father; By
whom all things were made: Who for us men
and for our salvation came down from heaven, and was incarnate by the
Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary, and was made man: And was crucified also
for us under Pontius Pilate; He suffered was buried: And the third day
He rose again according to the Scriptures:
And ascended into heaven, And sitteth on the right hand of the Father:
And he shall come again, with glory, to judge both the quick and the
dead; Whose kingdom shall have no end.
And I believe in the Holy Ghost, The Lord, and Giver of Life, Who
proceedeth from the Father and the Son; Who with the Father and the Son
together is worshipped and glorified; Who spake by the Prophets: And I
believe one Catholic and Apostolic Church: I acknowledge
one Baptism for the remission of sins: And I look for the Resurrection
of the dead: And the Life of the world to come. Amen.
was honoured last year to be asked to conduct a baptism, in, of all
places, the Chapel of the House of Commons in London. A parking space
was arranged, and the day went well. That is, until I started
out upon my homeward journey. In Parliament Square a Gay Pride
demonstration was in full swing. For an hour the traffic was gridlocked.
Nothing moved, save for thousands waving flags and banners. I have
never seen so many excited people gathered together in
one place. Perhaps the day was like the gathering in Jerusalem on the first Palm Sunday.
How did so many in London know where and when to meet? The answer is obvious: social media.
how did so many know where and when Christ would enter Jerusalem? The
answer is of course different, but obvious: it could only have been by
word of mouth. St John’s Gospel records that Christ had
already turned water to wine, fed five thousand hungry people and
healed the incurable. More miraculously still, he had raised Lazarus
from death at Bethany. Although Jesus wouldn’t have wished it, he had
achieved celebrity status; everyone wanted to glimpse
him. Others had still higher hopes of him as a political leader.
Jerusalem had been subdued under the rule of the Roman Empire for at
least a century. Could it be that Christ, who had referred to himself as
King of the Jews, was now coming to Jerusalem to
overthrow the empire and lead the nation to renewed glory? Certainly,
that was the hope of many belonging to a nationalist group called the
upon a time, the people of an ancient Spanish village learned that
their king was to pay the village a state visit for
the first time within living memory. At a village meeting it was agreed
that the occasion should be marked, but how? Then someone suggested
this idea. Since many of the villagers made their own wines, the plan
was for everyone to contribute a cup of their
choice wine. Each contribution was to be poured into a large vat
through a funnel at its top and placed in the market square. “When the
king arrives and draws wine from the vat, it will be the very best he’s
ever tasted!” promised the mayor.
day before the king’s arrival, hundreds of people lined up to pour in
their offering to the honored guest until the vat
was full. The next day the King arrived. He was escorted to the square,
given a silver cup and invited to take a drink from the vat.
The king placed his cup under the vat’s tap and drank. He was surprised to taste nothing more than water.
You see, every villager had reasoned after the meeting,
“I’ll withhold my best wine and give water instead. With so many cups of
wine in the vat, the king will never know the difference” The problem
was that everyone thought
likewise. Nobody gave wine, but only water. The king was thus greatly
the first Palm Sunday, Jesus entered Jerusalem to great acclaim.
Bystanders waved Palm leaves in his honour. They quickly
realised though that a man riding a donkey rather than a charger was
not a king. A man followed by a rabble of disciples rather than menacing
men of war was never going to be of use to them. They therefore
deserted Christ the Son of God at the roadside leaving
him alone to face death. A few days later at the trial they saw a
beaten and disfigured Jesus. They too dishonored their king. He was like
the King whose subjects promised wine, but only gave water
Will in the days to come, our king the Son of God draw water or the best wine from our lives. Will he be honored or dishonored?
Keep us, good Lord,
under the shadow of your mercy
in this time of uncertainty and distress.
Sustain and support the anxious and fearful,
and lift up all who are brought low;
that we may rejoice in your comfort
knowing that nothing can separate us from your love
in Christ Jesus our Lord. Amen.
Lord Jesus Christ,
you taught us to love our neighbour,
and to care for those in need
as if we were caring for you.
In this time of anxiety, give us strength
to comfort the fearful, to tend the sick,
and to assure the isolated
of our love, and your love,
for your name’s sake. Amen.
God of compassion,
be close to those who are ill, afraid or in isolation.
In their loneliness, be their consolation;
in their anxiety, be their hope;
in their darkness, be their light;
through him who suffered alone on the cross,
but reigns with you in glory,
Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.
For those who are ill
we entrust to your tender care
those who are ill or in pain,
knowing that whenever danger threatens
your everlasting arms are there to hold them safe.
Comfort and heal them,
and restore them to health and strength;
through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.
For hospital staff and medical researchers
give skill, sympathy and resilience
to all who are caring for the sick,
and your wisdom to those searching for a cure.
Strengthen them with your Spirit,
that through their work many will be restored to health;
through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.
God, Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, Maker of all things, Judge of all
men; We acknowledge and bewail our manifold sins and wickedness, Which
we, from time to time, most grievously have committed, By thought,
word, and deed, Against Thy Divine Majesty, Provoking most justly Thy
wrath and indignation against us. We do earnestly repent and are
heartily sorry for these our misdoings: The remembrance
of them is grievous unto us; The burden of them is intolerable. Have
mercy upon us, Have mercy upon us, most merciful Father; For Thy Son our
Lord Jesus Christ’s sake, Forgive us all that is past; And grant that
we may ever hereafter Serve and please Thee
In newness of life, To the honour and glory of Thy Name; Through Jesus
Christ our Lord. Amen.
The Almighty and merciful Lord grant me pardon and absolution of all my sins. Amen.
The Comfortable Words, Preface. and Sanctus.
Hear what comfortable words our Saviour Christ saith unto all who truly turn to Him.
Come unto Me, all ye that travail and are heavy laden, and I will refresh you. St. Matt. xi. 28.
So God loved the world, that He gave His only-begotten Son, to the end
that all that believe in Him should not perish, but have everlasting
life. St. John iii. 16.
Hear also what Saint Paul saith.
This is a true saying, and worthy of all men to be received, That Christ
Jesus came into the world to save sinners. 1 Tim. i. 15.
Hear also what Saint John saith.
If any man sin, we have an Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the
Righteous; and He is the Propitiation for our sins. 1 St. John ii. 1, 2.
with Angels and Archangels, and with all the company of heaven, we laud
and magnify Thy glorious Name; evermore praising Thee, and saying,
HOLY, HOLY, HOLY, Lord God of hosts, Heaven and earth are full of Thy glory: Glory be to Thee, O Lord Most High. Amen.
A personal Communion
union, O Lord with the faithful, I desire to offer Thee praise and
thanksgiving. I present to Thee my soul and body with the earnest wish
that I may
always be united to Thee. And since I cannot now receive Thee
sacramentally, I beseech Thee to come spiritually into my heart. I unite
myself to Thee, and embrace Thee with all the affections of my soul.
Let nothing ever separate Thee from me. May I live and
die in Thy love. Amen.
Coronavirus – Updated information – On line and Broadcast Services
From the Episcopal Church in Scotland As part of the ongoing response to the Coronavirus pandemic the Scottish Episcopal Church (SEC) will this Sunday (22 March) begin broadcasting video coverage of Eucharistic services via its website, social media channels and YouTube channel. The web page for the broadcast is located at www.scotland.anglican.org/broadcast-sunday-worship
The first service, led by the Most Rev Mark Strange, Primus of the Scottish Episcopal Church, will be broadcast at 11am on Sunday, to coincide with when many people would normally be worshipping, if church services had not been suspended earlier this week.
The website will also contain a downloadable video and audio format of the service. A new service will be broadcast every Sunday on the SEC website, to allow all congregations to worship. We are aware that some congregations will offer their own version of online worship, but others will not have the means or resource to attempt this, hence this province-wide broadcast.
In advance of the broadcast of each provincial service, the Liturgy will be available to download from the SEC website. We are conscious of the need to offer as much assistance as possible to those who have no access to the internet, and we encourage people to distribute the video/audio recordings and the Liturgy widely within their own personal networks. In households with no internet or playback capacity, people who can be helped by others through the provision of printed materials will have the opportunity to read the words of the Liturgy to themselves close to the appointed time, praising God along with others in the Church.
“Prayer is an important part of the tradition and spiritual life of the people of God,” said Bishop Mark. “In hard times and good times, quietly being before God with the people we love in our hearts encircles us all in God’s everlasting love and the promise of hope and salvation.”
The service will be available online after its first broadcast, followed by a new one each week, the next at 11am on Sunday 29 March.
Broadacast services – Anglican Church Subject to outside broadcast capacity and our partners, the BBC will aim to broadcast a weekly Sunday morning church service on BBC One, and on local radi stattions
By way of summary, the Guidelines make the following changes to the Linkage
• public worship is suspended from today in our churches.
Should they occur, funerals will have to be taken at the graveside or
crematorium, without family presence. These can be followed by a
memorial service when the situation permits.
• weddings may have to be celebrated in private or postponed until the situation changes.
• face to face meetings of Vestries and other groups and events are suspended.
The Scottish Episcopal Church will be providing online Eucharistic Sunday worship via the SEC website from this Sunday onwards.
am anxious that everyone feels that the Linkage continues to function,
albeit in a different way. Amanda Smith at St Andrews has already
graciously offered practical help to anyone in need, and the same offer
is extended by me. Please contact me as and when required and I will do
my best to assist, whatever the difficulty
I will of course share further information as and when it is received. In the meantime, my thoughts and prayers for each of you.
It is quite possible, of course, that the suspension of Services might
last as long as Easter and beyond. We will let you know if this becomes
A great deal of general information is already circulating to minimise risk of
The Scottish Episcopal Church is following guidelines issued by the Church of
England relating to Sunday and other services. The following summarises this
advice insomuch as it relates to The Linkage.
The sharing of the Peace at St Mary’s will only be shared verbally. Thereafter, any other salutation will be at the attendee’s discretion.
Communion. The administration of Communion will continue, but the precise form of receiving will be at the discretion of the communicant. The options are: a. To decline communion and remain in the pew during administration. b. To receive ‘a non-contact’ priest’s blessing instead of Communion. A service book held in the hand will indicate this choice. c. To receive communion in the form of the wafer only and then depart before being offered the cup. d. To receive communion in both kinds as normal. Intinction, which is the practice of partly dipping the consecrated bread into the consecrated wine before consumption by the communicant is strongly dissuaded. The practice has been identified as a high- risk potential cause of infection.
General. All decisions taken will be respected by Richard. Please be assured that strict hygiene continue to be observed by those preparing elements both before and after the service. Richard Grosse Rector 5 th March 2020